The thyroid gland controls how quickly the body uses energy, makes proteins, and controls how sensitive the body should be to other hormones. It participates in these processes by producing thyroid hormones, the principal ones being triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine. These hormones regulate the rate of metabolism and affect the growth and rate of function of many other systems in the body . T3 and T4 are synthesized from both iodine and tyrosine. The thyroid also produces calcitonin , which plays a role in calcium homeostasis’.
Thyroid Disorders include hyperthyroidism (abnormally increased activity), hypothyroidism (abnormally decreased activity). All these disorders may give rise to goiter, that is, and enlarged thyroid.
Hyperthyroidism or overactive thyroid, is the overproduction of the thyroid hormones T3 and T4 , and is most commonly caused by the development of Graves Disease, and autoimmune disease in which antibodies are produced which stimulate the thyroid to stimulate the thyroid to secrete excessive quantities of thyroid hormones. The disease can result in the formation of a toxic goiter as a result of thyroid growth in response to a lack of negative feedback mechanisms. It presents with symptoms such as a thyroid goiter, protruding eyes , palpitations, excess sweating, diarrhea, weight loss, muscle weakness and unusual sensitivity to heat.
Hypothyroidism is the underproduction of the thyroid hormones T3 and T4. Hypothyroid disorders may occur as a result of congenital thyroid abnormalities.
Symptoms of Hypothyroidism are abnormal weight gain, tiredness, baldness, cold intolerance .